Sports and Health | Science Movement, Have you done it right?

Physical activity preparation questionnaire

Before you plan to exercise, please read carefully and answer the following six questions according to your actual situation for your safety.

whether or not

□□ Did the doctor tell you that you have a heart disease or can only participate in physical activities recommended by the doctor?

□□□ Have you ever felt chest pain or severe breathlessness when you are engaged in physical activities or sports?

□□ Since last month, have you ever felt chest pain or severe breathlessness when you have not participated in physical activity or exercise?

□□ In the past 6 months, have you ever fallen down or lost consciousness because of dizziness when you were engaged in physical activities or sports?

□□□ Do you have any bone or joint pain or dysfunction aggravated by physical activity or exercise?

□□ Did the doctor tell you that your blood pressure is over 180/110mmHg?

If you answer "Yes" to any of the above questions, please stop taking part in this fitness exercise and pay attention to: (1) consult a doctor before taking part in the fitness program and explain which question in the questionnaire is answered "Yes"; (2) Take part in fitness activities step by step, gradually adapt, the intensity of exercise should not be too large, and the time should not be too long; (3) You can restart the fitness mode that has been proved to be safe; (4) You can also participate in activities recommended by doctors or activities allowed by doctors; (5) timely use of necessary medication.

If you answer "No" to all the above questions, you can continue to exercise, but please pay attention to the following: (1) Take part in a large amount of exercise or exercise intensity gradually to avoid excessive fatigue; (2) Take part in further health evaluation, and work out the best fitness program accordingly.

Note:This questionnaire was established by the research group of Professor Wang Zhengzhen of Beijing Sport University with reference to relevant materials. It is suitable for people aged 15-69, and people over 69 should consult their doctors before doing fitness activities.

In recent years, with the in-depth implementation of national fitness, people’s participation has been continuously improved, and "more exercise and less illness" has increasingly become a social consensus.

What are the benefits of regular exercise to human health? What are the important principles of the scientific movement? How can we avoid sports risks? Our reporter interviewed Zhang Yimin, a professor at Beijing Sport University and director of the Key Laboratory of Sports and Physical Health, and asked him to answer questions.

Late-night exercise is extreme

Scientific movement is a good doctor. "Scientific exercise can not only effectively improve heart and lung function, promote human metabolism, strengthen muscle and ligament strength, but also make people happy physically and mentally, enhance their ability to resist stress and promote their physical and mental health." Zhang Yimin said that "integration of physical education and medicine" is an important way to implement the Healthy China Action, which plays a positive role in improving and promoting people’s health.

Is there a best time to exercise in a day? "In fact, when exercise has little effect on the fitness effect. From the factors that affect the fitness effect, the key is that the exercise load should match the individual’s physical health." Zhang Yimin introduced that the time period of people’s exercise is mainly influenced by the schedule. "Take me as an example, I am busy with teaching and preparing lessons during the day and have no time to exercise, so 18: 00-20: 00 after work will be the best time for me to exercise."

In recent years, some gyms in first-tier cities have launched 24-hour gyms to cater to the "special work and rest time" of office workers. According to the fitness statistics released by Leke in July last year, in Beijing, the proportion of fitness people from 22: 00 pm to 8: 00 am the next day is 12.8%. In the whole country, the proportion of members who exercise during this period is close to 10%.

Do sweaty exercise in the middle of the night when you should be sleeping. Is this exercise a plus or a minus for your health? "I think it is to reduce points. Late-night exercise is a bit extreme, which may disrupt the biological rhythm." Zhang Yimin reminded that it is more appropriate for office workers to squeeze out 30 minutes to 1 hour for exercise before dinner after work. If you occasionally work late in special circumstances, such as getting off work at 10 o’clock in the evening, and you really want to exercise, it is recommended to take a light activity for 30 minutes and sweat. "You know, rest is also an important way to eliminate fatigue, and exercise is systematic and long-term. If you don’t exercise one day, you can continue to exercise later. It is unnecessary and discouraged to exercise late at night."

Now it is the spring season, and many people who have been "cats" for a winter have begun to go outdoors and exercise their muscles. "In fact, any season is suitable for exercise, but beware of extreme weather." Zhang Yimin stressed that don’t exercise in cold, hot, high humidity, strong wind, pollution and radiation environment; The temperature difference between spring and autumn is large, and the temperature is low in the morning and evening. Pay attention to the influence of temperature and wind when exercising; Exercise in summer should guard against heatstroke; If there are special circumstances such as smog and sudden drop in temperature in winter, it is not recommended to do outdoor sports.

Don’t forget to stretch after exercise.

"Generally speaking, moving is definitely better than not moving." In Zhang Yimin’s view, scientific movement needs to follow the basic principles of safety, overall accuracy, step by step, perseverance and so on, and in terms of exercise mode, exercise intensity, exercise frequency, exercise duration and so on, it should be adapted to local conditions according to people and time.

Security principle. "It is very important to do warm-up activities before exercise and stretching exercises after exercise, but the latter is often ignored by many people." Zhang Yimin pointed out that during exercise, human muscles constantly contract and exert their strength, and their elasticity decreases. If they don’t stretch for a long time after exercise, these problems may be brought about: local inflammatory factors and metabolic wastes can’t be discharged, which leads to increased fatigue and slower recovery; The next training with fatigue will increase the risk of injury and induce sports injuries such as "running knee".

"If the muscles in the hind leg feel hard, and the knee joint is already tired or faintly uncomfortable, it may be caused by strain caused by not stretching after exercise." Zhang Yimin introduced that studies have confirmed that stretching after exercise helps to relax muscles and improve muscle elasticity, which is one of the "magic weapons" to reduce sports injuries. Stretching practice time should be at least 10 minutes, or about 1/3 of the duration of exercise.

Principle of comprehensiveness. Different types of exercise will bring different fitness effects, and the exercise methods are better, preferably including aerobic exercise, strength training and flexibility training. Aerobic exercise can make people’s heart and lung function better, and it also directly affects the activity ability of the whole body organs; Strength training helps to improve muscle strength and avoid problems in daily activities such as walking, running and jumping caused by insufficient strength; Flexibility training is stretching exercise, which can improve the stretching ability of muscles and effectively prevent sports injuries.

Principle of accuracy. As long as the fitness action standard and exercise load are reasonable, sports injuries can basically be avoided. The "fake" action of posing, not exerting force and nonstandard "wrong" action are the main causes of sports injury accidents. For example, "sit-ups with your head in your arms" is a typical non-standard movement, which may lead to sports injuries. If your hands are lightly placed behind your head or on your ears or chest, you should mainly use your abdomen to pull your trunk, instead of using your hands and head, which is not harmful, but also can exercise your core muscles well.

The principle of gradual progress. The frequency of exercise varies from person to person. Generally speaking, you should exercise at least three times a week, and it is best to gradually increase it to five times a week to ensure the fitness effect. No matter what your physical fitness level is, you should do what you can when exercising, and you can’t ignore the signals sent by your body. If you have dizziness, dizziness, chest pain, nausea, shortness of breath, palpitation, vomiting and other symptoms during exercise, you should stop exercising immediately and seek medical advice in time. If you have persistent and obvious fatigue after exercise, you should appropriately reduce the exercise time or times. When you feel in good physical condition, you can also exercise for a while.

The principle of perseverance. To achieve good fitness results, it is essential to participate in sports persistently. It is suggested that according to one’s physical health and sports ability, an achievable exercise goal should be established and a feasible exercise plan should be made. Work and rest should be combined in life to avoid giving up the exercise plan because of being too busy or too tired; We should understand sports from the height of "exercise is a part of life" and stick to it for a long time.

Avoiding sports risks in advance

Zhang Yimin pointed out that for most people, physical exercise is safe. However, special groups such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, menstruating women, those with heavy weight, and those who have been under exercise for a long time need to pay special attention to avoid risks before exercise.

People who don’t usually exercise regularly, especially the elderly, must start with low intensity (about 50% or slightly less of the maximum heart rate), short time (about 10 minutes) and long interval (exercise for 2-3 days a week), and then gradually improve the intensity after 3-6 months of adaptation; Children are highly excited during exercise, but they are easy to get tired. It is best not to let children do a single exercise for too long. For pregnant women and menstrual women, high-intensity exercise is not recommended, but moderate exercise within the body’s tolerance, such as walking; Heavy people are not suitable for running, in case they hurt their knees.

"Inappropriate physical exercise, such as exercise in bad environment, untimely exercise, exercise beyond physical endurance, exercise of people with congenital or acquired cardiovascular diseases, etc., may cause and aggravate pathological changes in the cardiovascular system, and cardiovascular accidents may occur. In severe cases, sudden death may occur." Zhang Yimin introduced that the main symptoms of cardiovascular accidents include chest tightness, chest pain, heartburn discomfort, syncope, abnormal dyspnea, etc. Common diseases include coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, etc.

"Generally speaking, if there is no problem with cardiovascular health, the risk of cardiac arrest or myocardial infarction caused by moderate-intensity physical activity is low. Most of those who died suddenly during exercise have been diagnosed or have hidden cardiovascular diseases. " Zhang Yimin pointed out that although the incidence of vascular accidents in sports centers is not high, it is harmful. In order to avoid the occurrence of vascular accidents in sports centers, we should properly understand the relevant health knowledge, consciously make full preparations and pay attention to self-protection in cold or hot and humid environments before doing fitness exercises. Follow the basic principles of different people and step by step, adjust mental state and control exercise intensity, so as to achieve the best fitness effect.